Pre-Algebra Vocabulary

- additive inverse - the opposite of a number
- adjacent angles - angles in the same plane that have a common vertex and a common side
- algebraic expression - An expression that contains at least one variable
- alternate exterior angles - for two lines intersected by a transversal, a pair of angles that lie on opposite sides of the transversal and outside the other two lines
- Associative Property - The property that states that for all real numbers a, b, and c, the sum/product is always the same, regardless of their regrouping.

2 + 3 + 8 = (2 + 3) + 8 = 2 + (3 + 8)

2 • 3 • 8 = (2 • 3) • 8 = 2 • (3 • 8)

- center of dilation - the point of intersection of lines through each pair of corresponding vertices in a dilation
- Commutative Property - A property that states that two or more numbers can be added/ multiplied in any order without changing the sum/product

8 + 20 = 20 + 8

8 • 20 = 20 • 8

- complementary angles - two angles whose measures add to 90°.
- Complex Fraction - a fraction that has a fraction in its numerator, denominator, or both.
- congruent - having the same size and shape; the symbol is ≅
- constant - A value that does not change.
- Constant of proportionality - The constant ratio between two quantities in a proportional relationships
- continuous graph - a graph made up of connected lines or curves
- coordinate plane - A coordinate system formed by the intersection of a horizontal number line, called the x-axis, and a vertical number line, called the y-axis.
- coordinate plane - A plane formed by the intersection of a horizontal number line called the x-axis and a vertical number line called the y axis
- corresponding angles - for two lines intersected by a transversal, a pair of angles that lie on the same side of the transversal and on the same sides of the other two lines.
- cube root - a number that is multiplied 3 times to form a product is called a cube root of that product
- Density Property - property of real number that states that between any two real numbers is another real number.
- dependent variable - output of a function
- dilation - a transformation that enlarges or reduces a figure.
- discrete graph - a graph mad up of distinct, or unconnected, points.
- Distributive Property - For all real numbers, a, b, and c, a(b + c) = ab + ac and a(b - c) = ab - ac
- domain - the set of x-values of the ordered pairs in a relation
- equivalent ratios - ratios that name the same comparison
- evaluate - To find the value of a numerical or algebraic expression.
- exterior angle - an angle formed by one side of a polygon and the extension of an adjacent side
- factor - A number that is multiplied by another number to get a product.
- function - an input-output relationship that has exactly one output for each input
- hypotenuse - in a right triangle, the side opposite the right angle
- Identity Property of One - The property that states that the product of 1 and any number is that number.
- Identity Property of Zero - The property that states that the sum of zero and any number is that number.
- image - a figure resulting from a transformation
- independent variable - represents the input of a function
- indirect measurement - the technique of using similar figures and proportions to find a measure
- input - the value substituted into an expression or function
- integers - the set of whole numbers and their opposites
- interior angles - angles on the inner sides of two lines cut by a transversal
- Inverse Property of Addition - the sum of a number and its opposite, or additive inverse.
- irrational number - a number that cannot be expressed as a ratio of two integers or as a repeating or terminating decimal
- legs - in a right triangle, the sides that include the right angle; in an isosceles triangle, the pair of congruent sides
- line of reflection - a line that a figure is flipped across to create a mirror image of the original figure.
- Multiplicative Inverse Property - the product of a nonzero number and its reciprocal, or multiplicative inverse, is one
- multiplicative inverse - one of two numbers whose product is 1; also called reciprocal.
- opposites - two numbers that are an equal distance from zero on a number line; also called additive inverse
- order of operations - By evaluating each term in a given expression. Terms are separated by operation symbols + & - . After reducing each set of terms, operations can then be performed left to right.
- ordered pair - A pair of numbers that can be used to locate a point on a coordinate plane. (x,y)
- origin - the point where the x-axis and y-axis intersect on the coordinate plane. (0,0)
- perfect cube - a cube of a whole number
- perfect square - a square of a whole number
- principal square root - the nonnegative square root of a number
- proportion - an equation that states that two ratios are equivalent
- proportional relationship - a relationship between two quantities in which the ratios of the quantity to the other quantity is constant
- Pythagorean Theorem - in any right triangle, the sum of the squares of the lengths of two legs is equal to the square of the length of the hypotenuse
- quadrant - The x- and y-axis divide the coordinate plane into four regions. Each region is called a quadrant.
- range (of a relation) - the set of y-values of the ordered pairs
- rate of change - A ratio that compares the amount of change in a dependent variable to the amount of change in an independent variable
- rational number - any number that can be expressed as a ratio of two integers
- real numbers - a rational or irrational number
- reciprocal - one of two numbers whose product is 1; also called multiplicative inverse
- reflection - a transformation of a figure that flips the figure across the line
- relation - a set of ordered pairs is called a relation
- remote interior angle - an interior angle that is not adjacent to the exterior angle
- repeating decimal - a decimal in which one or more digits repeat infinitely
- rotation - a transformation in which a figure is turned around a point
- same-side interior angles - for two lines intersected by a transversal, a pair of angles that lie on the same side of the transversal, between the parallel lines
- scale - the ratio between two sets of measurements
- scale drawing - a drawing that uses a scale to make an object smaller than or larger than the real object
- scale factor - the ratio used to enlarge or reduce similar figures
- scientific notation - a method of writing very large or very small numbers by using powers of 10
- similar - figures with the same shape but not necessarily the same size are similar
- slope - A measure of the steepness of a line on a graph; the rise divided by the run.
- square root - a number that is multiplied by itself to form a product is called a square root of a product
- supplementary angles - two angles whose measures have a sum of 180°
- terminating decimal - a decimal number that ends, or terminates
- transformation - a change in the size or position of a figure
- translation - a movement (slide) of a figure along a straight line
- transversal - a line that intersects two or more lines
- unit rate - a rate in which the second quantity in the comparison is one unit
- variable - A symbol used to represent a quantity that can change.
- vertical angles - a pair of opposite angles formed by intersecting lines
- x-axis - the horizontal axis on a coordinate plane
- x-coordinate - the first number in an ordered pair; it tells the distance to move right or left from the origin.
- y-axis - The vertical axis on a coordinate plane
- y-coordinate - the second number in an ordered pair; it tells the distance to move up or down from the origin.